Lesson Plan is vividly discuses in this article. Read through the post patiently and grab the point.
Before we dive into what lesson Plan is proper, Let us tackle the question;
What is a Lesson?
As there are different people and different authorities so there are different opinions and definitions of the term ‘lesson”.
According to Wragg (1995), the word Lesson is derived from the Latin word “Lectio” which means “a piece of reading”. Today, however, reading is just one component of a multitude of possible lesson component.
The contemporary component of a lesson is very broad. In a formal School system, a lesson can refers to a period, probably 40 minutes of time devoted exclusively to the teaching of maybe; Chemistry or mathematics to a class signaled by the sounding of a bell at the beginning and the end (formal schooling).
In an open plan school, a lesson might equally be seen as a 3-hour session during the start of the school day, and morning break with no formal indication other than the signal from the teacher or the instructor, as to when it should begin or end (Wragg 1995, p. 207).
However, for the purpose of education (the focus of this site) we wish to the term ” lesson” in a more precise manner, thus:
“A lesson is a plan developed by a teacher showing a sequence of instructional events and the kind of activities taking place in each event to guide class instruction”
What is a Lesson Plan
According to such scholars as Cohen and Manion, ” A lesson plan is the sequence of instructional events and the type of activity taking place in each event to guide classroom instruction”.
The following are definitions of a lesson plan according to other writers:
- A lesson Plan is a teacher’s detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson.
- According to Stones and Morris, (1972, p: 50), A lesson plan is ana outline, which guides the teacher to determine where the learners are going, how they are going to vet there, and how the teacher will know they have arrived.
- Capel, Leask & Turner (2009) Observes that a lesson plan is a design which shows how the elements of the lesson are systematically organized and sequenced for presentation over a period of time. As a Teacher, one must have a lesson plan for every lesson.
Gagne’s Nine Events Of Instruction
According to Gagne, the first instructional event that must occurs involves getting the attention of the learners. Students are motivated to learn when they are curious. As the students express interest in the material, it is necessary to inform them of the learning learning objectives involved in the instruction. Objectives Organize the instruction and serve as the basis for assessment. If students understand the objectives, they can be alert to the key elements of the instruction.
When students are aware of the objective, they also need to understand that participating in the learning activity will foster an outcome. The foal is to create a sense of expectancy for the learner. In Gagne’s view, “expectancy may be established by explaining to the Students what will happen when he or she has completed a learning act”. As students begin to learn new information, instruction should involve the recall of prior learning to establish a common foundation of understanding. It is easier for students to grasp information when there are connections made to their prior learning experiences.
The next learning event involves the actual presentation of content to respond to different learning styles, the teacher should be prepared to present content in different modes of learning environments. Gagne’s discussion regarding the significance of acceptable environment for learning are significant because they appreciate the modes of distance learning.
A student’s work to learn the new information, guidance is necessary. Guidance includes providing the instructions, analogies, examples and other devices to assist with the comprehension of information.
The next three events of instruction relate to assessment. To ensure the students are learning the material, they may be asked to practice this skill to elicit performance.
Hard-work, quizzes or discussion may occur to determine the level of understanding. Once a teacher has determined if the students have understood the instruction, feedback is necessary to to bell students understand the material.
The outcomes derived from the assessment of performance should also be used to modify instructional events (Objectives, guidance, etc).
Finally, the last event of instruction is to pre-inforce the retention of information through application and transfer. A teacher may review the material that was learned in a lesson prior to the lesson being taught to ensure that the previous material has been recalled.
Although Gagne’s nine instructional events are presented in a sequence, the nine events need not occur I. A single lesson, nor does the sequence of events have occur in the exact order has listed. Gagne’s intention was that these events should all be considered in terms of establishing a framework for instruction planning.
What to consider in a good lesson plan
A good lesson plan should contain materials that are capable of challenging students throughout the lesson and activities that would involve every student or learner. The format of the lesson plan should be easy for the teacher to follow with only a glance and he should never leave or stop the lesson delivery to read it.
Disagreement about which type of lesson plan is best would amount to waste of time. The lesson plan should be considered and treated as a tool. And as a tool, it should be only as effective as the person using it. The important point is that the teacher develops and uses a lesson plan that has worked for him.
A good lesson plan can be a comprehensive outline that is formally worded and neatly written down on a paper or electronic device. It can be a brief tabular outline that gives the major aspect of the lesson.
A good lesson plan should contain the the Topic, instructional objectives, instructional material, entry behaviour and most importantly Introduction, the teacher’s activities with the content and method. Undoubtedly, students activities, Application, concussion, Assessment and assignments are to be given to the students.