Lesson Plan Example: Science Related topic

Lesson Plan Example: Science Related topic

Lesson Plan Example

In this article, a detailed lesson plan example is written. It is clear and comprehensive for teachers, teachers in training and anyone who maybe interesting in learning his to write a lesson plan.

Lesson Title: Weathering and Erosion: Rock Sizes

Subject: Science and Social Studies Science

Grade Level:  2ndGrade

Approximate time: 50 minutes

lesson plan example: Rationale for methods

Having students work together through inquiry-based learning, also known as discovery learning, has been shown to increase understanding of learning and promote team work within the classroom.

“In formal disciplines such as science and mathematics, a pedagogical approach known as inquiry learning qualifies as an organic way to make students active agents in their own learning process. Inquiry-based methods, in short, enable students to learn about a topic through self-directed investigations,” (Ard W. Lazonder and Ruth Harmsen, 2016, p. 681).

As long as inquiry learning is supported by a facilitating teacher and is developmentally appropriate for the students, students are often able to reach a deeper level of understanding.

The inquiry method of teaching is based on of constructivism, an idea that several prominent theorists have supported and built upon. Constructivism supports the idea that information is received in an active manner based on of their immediate and past experiences, rather than received passively. (Koch, 2013). Considering that students learn in an active manner, it would be suggested that learning in a hands-on manner would support their understanding.

Furthermore, during my level III ELED 4000 teaching science course, the inquiry method of teaching was shown to be effective multiple times, as I was given the opportunity to implement the methods into real classrooms. Based on this methodology and experience, I have created this lesson to support the learning in this classroom.

  1.  Content standards


Standard 2-

Earth and Space Science. Students will gain an understanding of Earth and Space Science through the study of earth materials, celestial movement, and weather.

Objective 1-

  • Describe the characteristics of different rocks.

Social Studies:

Standard 3

Geography – Students will use geographic tools and skills to locate and describe places on earth.

Objective 1-

  • Identify common symbols and physical features of a community, and explain how they affect people’s activities in that area.

Academic language/vocabulary

  • Student will be able to analyze, evaluate, hypothesize, investigate, discuss, and explore.
  • Students will need to understand the following discipline:

specific vocabulary during the lesson and by the end of the lesson:

  • Sand: tiny, loose grains of rock, found on beaches and in deserts. Gravel: small stones or rock fragments, in between the size of sand and pebbles.
  • Pebbles: a small rock, smoothed by water.
    Mesh Screen: a screen composed of material made of fiber woven to form open spaces, as in a net. Can be used to sort objects by size.
    Sample: a small part of something that shows what the whole thing is like.
    Required materials, resources, and technology

lesson plan example: Lesson objectives

Science Objective:

Given different sized rock pieces, mesh screens, and hand lenses, students will be able to analyze river rock sample to identify the difference in size between pebbles, gravel, and sand with 100 percent accuracy.

Social Studies Objective:

After exploring a river rock sample, identifying the different sizes of rocks within the rock sample, and reading a book regarding the uses of rocks within a community based on rock size, students will be able to discuss how river rock usage effects activities and living within different communities.

Instructional Procedures


  • Place supplies (rock samples, plastic cups, paper plates, mesh screens) at different tables around the room.
  • Have Pebbles, Silt, and Sand book ready
  • Enough copies of the guiding questions
  • Blank space on the white board for a rock size list
  • Introduction: (5 minutes)

Tell students that there are some rock sample for them to explore within their groups from the rock

Previous Lesson.

Tell the students that as they explore, they will need to discover all that they can about these rocks using the guiding question (read aloud) worksheets the teacher will provide and their own scientific

Investigation skills.

The teacher should already have their rock samples, paper plates, cups, and question sheets set at their table stations or prepared to pass out.
Model how to pore rocks into cup from paper plate and vice versa.
Give the students the following explicit instructions/expectations:

  • They must work together in their groups
  • Each person gets their own paper plate to put some of the rock sample on
  • They must take turns using the supplies given to them
  • They must answer every question on their worksheet
  • They have 7 minutes to explore their rock sample before coming back to the rug.
  • They must be tidy and careful
    Send students to the appropriate groups and tables.

Inquiry Investigation Part One: (7 minutes)

  • Allow the students to explore their rocks using the tools given to them.
  • Monitor the students and give them time warnings as they explore their rocks.
  • Ask the students questions as they work and
  • encourage them to think deeper and make predictions.

Explain/Discussion Part One: (10 minutes)

  • Bring students back to the rug
  • Ask the students for some of the discoveries they made while investigating the rocks.

Reference the guiding questions during the discussion:

  • Did all the rocks look the same?
  • What are the differences you noticed?
  • Where do you think these rocks came from?
  • Have you ever seen rocks like these before?

Once it has been established that these rock samples are different sizes, read part of the book Pebbles, Sand, and Silt (pages 10-15). Ask the following questions as the book is read:

  • How did these weather forces change the size of the rocks?
  • What kind of weather force caused the rocks and earth to appear in this way?
  • How long do you think the process of changing a rock’s size can take?

Tell the students that because they now know that rocks are different sizes throughout their journeys, they are going to classify the rocks into different groups based on their sizes.

The teacher will give each group labels, and it will be the groups’ job to sort their rocks into that many categories. (Low groups will receive three labels: large pebbles, small gravel, and sand, medium will receive four: large pebbles small pebbles, large gravel, and sand, and high will receive five labels: large pebbles, small pebbles, large gravel, small gravel, and sand) They are allowed to use all of the materials they used during the first investigation and special mesh screens that will especially help them sort their rocks. After you have sorted them, decide which label goes where.

They should place the labels where they believe they should go after they have sorted the labels.
Remind students of the following expectations:

  • They must work together in their groups
  • They must take turns using the supplies given to them
  • Each person gets their own paper plate to put some of the rock sample on
  • They have 15 minutes to explore their rock sample before coming back to the rug.
  • They must be tidy and careful
  • They must use all of the labels.

Inquiry Investigation Part Two: (15 minutes)

  • Allow the students to separate and label their rocks with the tools given to them.
  • Give the differentiated groups their labels accordingly.
  • Monitor the students’ behavior as they work, answer questions, and make sure they are on the right path as they sort the rocks and label them.
  • Give students time warnings as they work with their groups.
  • Take pictures of the students’ final results after they have check with you that their sorting is correct.
  • Choose a group’s separated rocks to use during the explanation section.

Explain/Discussion Part Two: (10 minutes)

  • Bring the students back to the rug.
  • Show the students the rock sample you chose with the correct labels. This should be placed where the students can see it.
  • Have the class help determine the rock sizes in descending order and write them on the board. As the rock sizes are listed, use pictures of pebbles, gravel, and sand to further enforce their size.
  • Ask the students the following questions:
  • At what size would the rocks most likely begin their journey?
  • Could sand become a larger rock again?
  • What type of rock do you think the rock journey would apply to?
  • Explain to the students that different rock sizes can be very useful to people with their own community and around the world. They can affect the activities people participate in and how their environment looks.

Read the part of the book Pebbles, sand, and silt (pgs.16-18).

After reading, have the students turn towards a neighbor and share a way they have used or encountered different rock sizes in their community or in the world.
Have some students share by raise of hand the ideas they discussed with their neighbor and further discuss how people all over the world interact with rocks.

Conclusion: (3 minutes)

Explain to the student that they have learned that there are different sizes of rocks, the different rock sizes have different names, and that the different sizes of rocks can be useful in different communities around the world.
Thank the students for participating and continue to the next activity of the day.


  • 504 Plan students A, B, and C will be placed in investigation groups with people that allow them to flourish and will be monitored closely by the teacher.
  • 504 Plan students A and C/IEP students B and C will be given explicit instructions individually a second time. They will also be working with others in their groups to help them comprehend the worksheet and other instructions.
  • 504 Plan student A will keep a weighted, soft bag on their lap during the book reading and discussions. This student will also be allowed to sit at their desk during rug time.
  • 504 Plan student B will be monitored by a second teacher throughout the lesson.
  • IEP students A, B, and D will be given the book to look at before the lesson and be read the questions on the worksheet before the lesson to allow further understanding. Their understandings will be analyzed mainly upon their verbal participation within the lesson.
  • IEP student A, B, C, and D will be grouped in groups that are academically homogeneous to allow for differentiation during the lesson. The groups they are placed in will have a number of rock labels equivalent to their current academic abilities.
  • Gifted students’ extension: Students will have access to higher level reading materials on the different rock types during reading center time. Additionally, students will be give two more labels than the other groups, challenging them to sort their rock samples more specifically.

Focus Students:

Student 1 will be placed in a group that has an academically homogeneous group of people within it to support her understanding and allow for labeling differentiation. The student will also be given the book and worksheet to look at ahead of time. The worksheet will be read to the student ahead of time. The student will be allowed to draw pictures to support their written responses.
Student 2 will also be placed within a group that the student can succeed in, with student that are academically homogenous.
Student 3 will be placed in a group that not only allows him to behave, but also allows him to take charge and share his understanding in a group that will be receptive to it. The members of this group will be homogenous in understanding, allowing for more challenging material to be provided and discussed.


For evaluation of students’ beginning level of understanding in regards to this lesson, see the pre-assessment results section of this document.

Formative Assessments:

Pictures will be taken of the students’ separated rocks and labels.
Informal: During the discussion and the inquiry portion of the lesson, the teacher will monitor student understanding and watch students as they engage in the investigation.
Investigation Question Worksheets will be collected (see end of lesson to view worksheet).
These formative assessments will gage whether the students understand that rocks are different sizes, how they can be categorized, and how the rocks are used in different communities. The summative assessment is given at the end of the unit, and it located at the end of this document.

Rock Investigation Questions

  • Do all the rocks look the same?
  • How do the rocks look different?
  • Where do you think these rocks came from?
  • Have you ever seen rocks like these before?
  • Where?

Thank you for reading!

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